INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS
Cihan Duhok University’s Journal of Research CDUJR is an open access double-blind peer reviewed and Annually published research journal that publishes articles, in English and Arabic and in the field of management, economic, Life Sciences, Chemistry and Materials Science, Computer Science and Communications, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Engineering, Medicine and Healthcare, Physics and Mathematics and finally Social Sciences and Humanities. It is a modern research journal to encourage research publication to research scholars, academicians, professionals and students engaged in their respective field.
All manuscripts are reviewed by an editor and members of the Editorial Board or qualified outside reviewers. Authors cannot nominate reviewers. Only reviewers randomly selected from our database with specialization in the subject area will be contacted to evaluate the manuscripts. The process will be double-blind review.
Decisions will be made as rapidly as possible, and the journal strives to return reviewers’ comments to authors as soon as possible. The editorial board will re-review manuscripts that are accepted pending revision. It is the goal of the JSRS to publish manuscripts shortly after submission.
To be accepted, a paper must be judged to be truly outstanding in its field and to be of interest to a wide audience. The primary criteria during the review and selection process of the submitted papers are; sound theoretical basis, valid empirical application and analysis, and contribution to the fields of medicine. The primary criteria in the final selection of the papers once the review process is complete are quality, originality, and relevance to the international medical fields.
Submission of Manuscript
Submission of manuscript(s) should be by electronic submission with the text, tables and figures included in a single Microsoft Word file (preferably in Times New Roman or Arial font with font size 12). However, where it is not convenient for the author to include some tables and/or figures in the text of the manuscript, such tables or figures may be placed in a separate Microsoft Word file together with their figure legends. Their position should be properly cited/indicated in the text to enable the Editorial Office of JSRS, affix them appropriately, when editing the article during processing of the manuscript(s). All pages should be numbered consecutively starting from the title page.
Manuscript(s) should be submitted as e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Acknowledgement letter(s) together with manuscript number(s) will be mailed to the corresponding author within 48 hours of manuscript(s) reception by the Editorial Office.
A cover letter which should include the corresponding author’s full address and telephone/fax numbers should accompany each submission in a Microsoft Word file, sent as e-mail attachment and addressed to the Editor. This letter MUST be written by the first author but approved by all the authors. The content of the letter should include among others, a statement that:
- the research article is original and has not been submitted or accepted for publication elsewhere;
- clearly indicates whether potential conflict(s) of interest(s) do or do not exist;
- the manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors.
The manuscript(s) should be double-spaced, with a minimum of 2.5 cm margins on all sides, and arranged as follows: Title, Affiliation, Abstract, Key words, Text, Acknowledgments, Literature cited, Appendix, Tables, Figure legends and Figures. There is no restriction on the length of research papers and reviews, although authors are encouraged to be concise.
The title of the manuscript should be brief (but informative enough to facilitate information retrieval), given preferably in single line; and a suggested running title should also be provided. Should the title contains reference to plant(s) or organism(s), taxonomic affiliation of the plant(s) or organism(s) should be given in parentheses [For example, Juniperuscommunis L. (Cupressaceae, Gymnosperm) or Fauchealaciniata (Rhodymeniaceae, Rhodophyta)]
Names of Author(s)
The name(s) of author(s) should be listed below the title and the corresponding author should be indicated with asterisk (*). Also, the corresponding author MUST provide his email address and fax (if available).
The Affiliation(s) of all author(s) should be given clearly and briefly with their institutions, addresses with zip code and name of country.
The abstract should be brief, indicating the purpose/significance of the research, methodology adopted, major findings and the most significant conclusion(s). Scientific names should be spelled in italics. The abstract should not contain literature citations that refer to the main list of references attached to the complete article. The abstract should be written as a single paragraph and should be in reported speech format (past tense); complete sentences, active verbs, and the third person should be used. The abstract should not be more than 250 words.
The authors must provide 3-6 key words for indexing purposes and to facilitate the retrieval of articles by search engines. Key words provided should be different from the words that make up the title of the article.
The text should be typed in single column, double space and justified. Should there be abbreviation(s) in the text, full term for which the abbreviation stands should precede its first use in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement. Also scientific names should be spelled in italics throughout text. The full term for which an abbreviation of a scientific name stands should also precede its first use in the text. Thereafter, generic names should be abbreviated as appropriate without altering the species name. The text should be subdivided into the following sections:
Introduction should be clear and concise, with relevant references to the nature of the problem under investigation as well as its background. There should be no sub-headings. Excessive citations of literature (specially to support well known statements) and discussions marginally relevant to the paper; together with other information that adds length but little significance to the research, should be avoided. Only necessary and latest citations of literature that are required to indicate the reason for the research undertaken and the essential background should be given.
Materials and Methods
Descriptions of experiment(s) should be sufficiently detailed to enable scientist in that field of study to replicate them. Should the study site description serve as complementary to the research, it should be included as a sub-heading within this section. A precise description of the selection of your observational or experimental subjects (for example, patients or laboratory animals including controls) must be presented. Experimental research involving human or animals should have been approved by author’s institutional review board or ethics committee. This information can be mentioned in the manuscript including the name of the board/committee that gave the approval. The use of animals in experiments will have observed the Interdisciplinary Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education. All chemicals and drugs used must be identified correctly, including their generic names, the name of the manufacturer, city and country in parenthesis. The techniques and methodology adopted should be supported with standard references. Briefly describe methods that have been published but are not well known as well as new or substantially modified methods. Descriptions of established procedures are unnecessary. Apparatus should be described only if it is non-standard; commercially available apparatus used should be stated (including manufacturer’s name and address in parenthesis). Only International System (SI) units should be used for all measurements.
Results and Discussion
The results may be presented first, followed by a discussion of their significance. When presented in this format, it should be presented in logical sequence. Data emerging from the study should be included, arranged in unified and coherent sequence(s) and should be statistically analyzed. Only strictly relevant results should be presented; and figures, tables, and equations should be used for purposes of clarity and brevity. The same data should not be presented both in tabular and graphic forms. Results and Discussion may also be presented together. The discussion should state the implications of the findings and their limitations as well as the conclusion(s) drawn. It should relate the observations to previously published related studies and should be supported by relevant references. Long confused and irrelevant discussion should be avoided. Conclusions should not summarize information already present in the text or abstract. Recommendations, when appropriate, may be included.
should not contain methodology and/or results sections since there is neither any study to describe nor data to be analyzed. The format is as follows: Abstract, 3-6 key words, Introduction, Relevant section headings, Conclusion and References.
The Acknowledgement should include the names of those who contributed substantially to the work described in the manuscript but do not fulfill the requirements for the authorship. It should also include name(s) of sponsor(s)/funding agency of the research.
The list of references should conform to the conventions specified in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) (6th ed.) style: Short reference system for citations in the text, accompanied by a detailed alphabetical list below the “Acknowledgement” section. Single author reference should be cited thus: Goshen, 2012; should there be more than two authors, surname of the first author followed by et al., and the year should be cited in the text, for example, Smith et al., 2012; should the sources include just two authors; it should be cited thus: Goshen and Smith, 2012. Include among the references, manuscripts accepted but not yet published; designate the journal followed by “in press” (in parenthesis). When referencing website, please include the full title and accessed date. In the list of references at the end of the paper, full and complete references should be given in the following style, with punctuation arranged alphabetically by first author’s surname:
Example paragraph with in-text citation
A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers’ ability to understand accented speech (Derwing, Rossiter, & Munro, 2002; Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.
Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23(4), 245-259.
Thomas, H. K. (2004). Training strategies for improving listeners’ comprehension of foreign-accented speech (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.
Web page with author:
Role-play can help children learn techniques for coping with bullying (Kraiser, 2011).
Kraizer, S. (2011). Preventing bullying. Retrieved from http://safechild.org/categoryparents/preventing-bullying/
Web page with no author:
The term Nittany Lion was coined by Penn State football player Joe Mason in 1904 (All things Nittany, 2006).
All things Nittany. (2006). Retrieved from http://www.psu.edu/ur/about/nittanymascot.htm
Web page with no date:
Establishing regular routines, such as exercise, can help survivors of disasters recover from trauma (American Psychological Association [APA], n.d.).
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Recovering emotionally from disaster. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/recovering-disasters.aspx
Author’s name in parentheses:
One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).
Author’s name part of narrative:
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Group as author:
First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015)
Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)
Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)
Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
Direct quote: (include page number)
One study found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).
Works by Multiple Authors
APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following guidelines to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text.
Note: When using multiple authors’ names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and. For multiple authors’ names within a parenthetic citation, use &.
One author: (Field, 2005)
Two authors: (Gass & Varonis, 1984)
Three to five authors:
First citation: (Tremblay, Richer, Lachance, & Cote, 2010)
Subsequent citations: (Tremblay et al., 2010)
Six or more authors: (Norris-Shortle et al., 2006)
Goodpaster, K. E., Nash, L. L., & de Bettignies, H. (2006). Business ethics: Policies and persons (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Book by a group author:
American Medical Association. (2004). American Medical Association family medical guide (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Article or chapter within an edited book:
Winne, P. H. (2001). Self-regulated learning viewed from models of information processing. In B.J. Zimmerman & D.H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement (2nd ed., pp. 160-192). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Tolstoy, L. (2006). War and peace. (A. Briggs, Trans.). New York, NY: Viking. (Original work published 1865).
Post, E. (1923). Etiquette in society, in business, in politics, and at home. New York, NY: Funk & Wagnalls. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/95
Entry in an online reference work:
Rey, G. (2006). Behaviorism. In D. M. Borchert (Ed.), Encyclopedia of philosophy. (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/
E-Reader book (such as Kindle):
Tetlock, P.E., & Gardner, D. (2015). Superforecasting: The art and science of prediction [Kindle Paperwhite version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com
Hipster. (n.d.) In Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved from www.oed.com
Article in a monthly magazine:
Swedin, E. G. (2006, May/June). Designing babies: A eugenics race with China? The Futurist, 40, 18-21.
Article in an online magazine:
Romm, J. (2008, February 27). The cold truth about climate change. Salon.com. Retrieved from http://www.salon.com/2008/02/27/global_warming_deniers/
Article in a weekly magazine:
Will, G. F. (2004, July 5). Waging war on Wal-Mart. Newsweek, 144, 64.
Article in a daily newspaper:
Dougherty, R. (2006, January 11). Jury convicts man in drunk driving death. Centre Daily Times, p. 1A.
Article in a scholarly journal with DOI:
Blattner, J., & Bacigalupo, A. (2007). Using emotional intelligence to develop executive leadership and team and organizational development. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59(3), 209-219. doi:10.1037/1065-92188.8.131.52
Rifkind, D. (2005, April 10). Breaking their vows. [Review of the book The mermaid chair, by S.M. Kidd]. Washington Post, p. T6.
McAdoo, T. (2014, February 4). How to Cite a Hashtag in #APA Style [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/social-media/
Clarkson, R.G. (2009, July 20). [RobertGClarkson]. Claustrophobia: 7 Quick Tactics to Stop the Panic [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0jOXKzwM-Ns
Howcast. (2019, October 29). How to Recognize Claustrophoba Symptoms [Video file]. Retrived from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6t5QL3ksAPA
These examples are for citing company information, industry information, or results from the “Build a List” feature.
Citing information on an individual company:
Hoover’s Inc. (2015). Chipotle Mexican Grill Incorporated. Retrieved January 28, 2015 from Hoover’s database.
Citing information on an industry:
Hoover’s Inc. (2015). Fast-Food & Quick-Service Restaurants. Retrieved January 28, 2015 from Hoover’s database.
If you generate a list using Hoover’s “Build a List” feature, cite it using your own descriptive name for the list you created. Example:
Hoover’s Inc. (2015). Reading, PA, restaurants in the 19601 zipcode. Retrieved January 28, 2015 from Hoover’s database.
Cite an IBISWorld report as in the following example. APA says to include a report number, if given, in parentheses after the title. Example:
Brennan, A. (2014). Single location full-service restaurants in the US (Industry Report 72211b). Retrieved January 28, 2015, from IBISWorld database.
Wall, B. (2014). Full service restaurants – US. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from Mintel Academic database.
Notice that unlike IBISWorld, Mintel does not provide report numbers.
U.S. Census Bureau:
U.S. Census Bureau. (2015). State & county quickfacts: Berks County, Pennsylvania. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/42/42011.html
Tables and Figures
All tables and figures must be relevant and necessary; the same data should not be presented in tables and figures, and do not use short tables for information that can be easily presented using text. Tables and figures should be numbered sequentially, for example, Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3 and so on.